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Notes

E.G. Gasanov

This and many other very interesting materials have been published in the book "Drug Abuse: Tendencies and Ways to Overcome It (based on materials of the Republic of Azerbaijan)" (Мoscow: "JurInfoR" Educational and Consulting Center, 1998)


[001] See: e.g. "This Dangerous Disease of Drug Addiction" by N. Naidyonova, M. Znaniye Publishers, 1988 or "Narcotism: Essense and Prevention by V. Kolesov and S. Turtsevich, M., Znaniye Publishers, 1988.

[002] From "Issues of Organization and Tactics to Prevent Narcotism" (recommended methods), M., The Main Board for Criminal Investigation, the USSR Ministry of Home Affairs, 1988.

[003] See: " Drug Addiction and Its Threat to Society", V. Egorshin, Leningrad University Bulletin, Series 6, L., 1989, pp. 95-97.

[004] See for greater detail: E. Gasanov Activities of Law Enforcement Bodies to Prevent Narcotism Among Young People (based on materials of the Republic of Azerbaijan): a thesis for a Master's degree in law presented in Baku State University, Baku, 1991, pp. 22-24).

[005] See: M. Babayev "Crime and Its Social Consequences", M. The Academy of the USSR Ministry of Home Affairs, 1982, p. 21.

[006] See V. Rossipiashvili "Efforts by Law Enforcement Agencies to Combat the Illegal Preparation, Spread and Use of Narcotics in the Republic of Azerbaijan.", a related scientific paper and thesis for a Master's degree in law, Baku, 1988, p. 6.

[007] See: "Ways to Avert the Spread of Drug Addiction and Toxicomania" by V. Kolesov, M., 1988, pp. 99-101.

[008] used subsequently as an abbreviation WHO.

[009] See: The report delivered at the 4th special session of the Drug Commission under the UN Economic and Social Council, New York, 1980, pp. 20-23.

[010] See for greater detail: E. Gasanov. Activities of Law Enforcement Bodies To Prevent Narcotism Among Young People (based on materials of the Republic of Azerbaijan): a thesis for a Master's degree in law presented at Baku State University, Baku, 1991, pp. 35-43.

[011] See: From "Issues of Organization and Tactics To Prevent Narcotism (recommended methods). M,. The Main Board for Criminal Investigation of the USSR Ministry of Home Affairs, 1988, p. 3.

[012] The legal aspect of narcotism is described in detail in the third and the subsequent chapters of this book

[013] The criminological aspect of narcotism in the Republic of Azerbaijan has been studied thoroughly and described by N. Aliev (see Narcotism Among Young People-Gyandja,1990, pp. 8-9).

[014] See: Political Education. 1989, N 15, p. 75.

[015] The Soviet Encyclopaedic Dictionary. M., Soviet Encyclopaedia, 1987, p. 861.

[016] It should be stressed at this point that the notion of narcotism can be found mainly in theoretical studies whereas laws and other legal acts as well as various works focusing on the subject prefer to use the term "drug addiction".

[017] See: E. Pobegailo "Tendencies of Presentday Crime and Steps to Improve Legal Actions To Combat It". M., The Academy of the USSR Ministry of Home Affairs, 1990, p. 14.

[018] See: Methods to Combat Organized Crime in Switzerland, the USSR Institute of Scientific and Technical Information, 1989, N7, p. 27.

[019] See: "Practical Steps to Combat Organized Crime", a Survey issued by the Russian Federation's Ministry of Home Affairs, 1992, N 5, p. 63

[020] See: The Russian Federation's Home Affairs Ministry - survey No 5, 1992, p. 63.

[021] It is enough to recall the story of Pablo Escobar, a drug tycoon of Columbia, who was killed in that country in December 1993 during the exchange of fire with policemen. That happened after the 16-month long searches for him. He started his business with the desecration of graves, car stealing and contract murders and ended as the head of the Medeleino Cartel with the fortune earned from drugs and estimated at billions of dollars. Seeking a high position for himself Escobar managed to win over the support of the Liberal party which helped him in 1982 with the election to the post of the assistant to the MP. This election gave him a chance to secure a parliamentary immunity for himself and a free hand in going ahead with his criminal activities: acts of terrorism, killings and explosions on transport. The scale of his terror scared peoples and governments of many countries whose foreign and domestic policies he kept interfering.

[022] See: "Basic Principles for Combating Organized Crime". M., "INFRA-M", 1996, pp. 8, 12.

[023] Ya. Belson. Interpol: Battle Against Crime. M., The Nauka Publishers, 1989, p. 25.

[024] Moves to Strengthen International Cooperation in Joint Actions Against Organized Crime: A review. The Main Research Center of the Russian Federation's Ministry of Internal Affairs ed. 12, Moscow, 1992, p. 5.

[025] Moves to Strengthen International Cooperation in Joint Actions Against Organized Crime: A review. The Main Research Center of the Russian Federation's Ministry of Internal Affairs ed. 12, Moscow, 1992, p. 5.

[026] See: L. Gaukhman. Organized Crime: Concept, Varieties, Tendencies and Problems of Legal Actions: a lecture delivered at the Academy of the Russian Federation's Ministry of Home Affairs. 1993, pp. 3-4.

[027] See, for example, Organized Crime. Problems. Discussions. Proposals. The round-table talk. M., Juridical Literature, 1989; E. Pobegailo. Tendencies of Present-Day Crime and Ways of Improving Legal Actions Against It. M., 1990; The same author - Concept of Organized Crime and Ways of Perfecting Legislation Against It. Legal Actions Against Crime- works issued by the Academy of the Russian Federation's Ministry of Home Affairs. M., 1992; Yu. Kucher. Legal Actions Against Forms of Organized Criminal Activities. Legal Actions Against Crime- works issued by the Academy of the Russian Federation's Ministry of Home Affairs. M., 1992, p. 95; S. Ovchinsky and V. Ovchinsky. Actions Against Mafia in Russia, - the question-and-answer manual for workers of the Home Affairs Ministry. M., Kodeks. 1993.

[028] See: A. Volobuyev G. Galkin Organized Crime and Its Essence. 1989, No 21, p. 9.

[029] See: Pravda, the December 23d issue, 1989.

[030] See: L. Gaukhman. Organized Crime: Concept, Varieties, Tendencies, Problems of Legal Actions. A lecture delivered at the Academy of the Russian Federation's Ministry of Home Affairs. M., 1993, pp. 7,8.

[031] A. Volobuyev and E Galkin. Organized Crime and Its Essence. Soviet Justice. 1989, No 21, p. 9.

[032] Earlier foreign studies of theft showed that drug addicts accounted for 44% of it (see: Examination of Drug Addicts At the Fleuri-Meroji Corrective Center, the USSR Institute of Scientific and Technical Information (VINITI), 1987, No 12, p. 29).

[033] Findings made earlier at home are similar (see: e.g. Z.Abazov Legal Criminal Investigation and Criminological Steps Against Crimes Related to Illegal Drug Trafficking-an authorized thesis for a Master's Degree. M., the Academy of the USSR Ministry of Home Affairs, 1988).

[034] See: Z.Abazov Legal Criminal Investigation and Criminological Steps Against Crimes Related to Illegal Drug Trafficking-an authorized thesis for a Master's Degree. M., the Academy of the USSR Ministry of Home Affairs, 1988, p. 14.

[035] See: G. Meretukov. Investigation of Crimes Related to Illegal Drug Trafficking, a text-book. M., The Moscow Higher Police School of the Russian Federation's Ministry of Home Affairs, 1992, p. 3.

[036] See: Eldar Gasanov. Activities of Law Enforcement Bodies to Prevent Narcotism Among Young People (on the basis of materials of the Republic of Azerbaijan), an authorized thesis for a Master's Degree in law, Baku, 1991; Eldar Gasanov Antinarcotism: Legal and Criminal Investigation Problems-Baku, Azerneshr, 1994, p. 20.

[037] Soviet Encyclopaedic Dictionary-M., Soviet Encyclopaedia, 1947, p. 1215.

[038] See: International Conference On Combating Drug Addiction. Socialist Law. 1987, No 11, p. 71.

[039] See: Rossiiskaya Gazeta. 1993, the August 13th issue, p. 5.

[040] See: The Declaration of the international conference on combating drug abuse and drug trafficking and the Comprehensive Inter-disciplinary Plan of Action against drug abuse-New York, 1988, pp. 15-19.

[041] See: A. Grishko. Legal and Criminological Problems of a Social Rehabilitation of Chronic Alcohol and Drug Users - an authorized thesis for a Ph. D. (law) degree. M., The Academy of the Russian Federation's Ministry of Home Affairs, 1993, pp. 26-30.

[042] The job of referring these or other substances to the category of narcotics is regulated by the 1961 Uniform Convention of Narcotic Substances, instructions issued by the former USSR Ministry of Health, supplements to protocols issued by the Standing Committee on Drug Control under the USSR Ministry of Health. See: Organized Campaign Against Drug Addiction. Kiev, The Ministry of Home Affairs of the Sovereign Socialist Republic of the Ukraine, The Main Board for Criminal Investigation of the USSR Ministry of Home Affairs, 1988, pp. 68, 69, 242-250.

[043] See also: L. Gaukhman. Organized Crime: Concept, Varieties, Tendencies and Problems of Legal Actions. A lecture delivered at the Moscow Academy of the Russian Federation's Ministry of Home Affairs, 1993, p.7.

[044] See: Bulletins issued by the Supreme Soviet of the Sovereign Republic of Azerbaijan: 1965 No 24, p. 135; 1975, No 7, p. 51; 1985, No 21, p. 204; 1987 No 6, p. 48.

[045] See: Bulletins issued by the Supreme Soviet of the sovereign republic of Azerbaijan. 1971, No 13 p.113; 1985, No 21, p. 204; and 1987 No. 6 p. 48.

[046] For details about necessary defense and extreme necessity as circumstances ruling out public danger and unlawful actions see, for example, M. Yakubovich. Circumstances Ruling out Public Danger and Unlawful Actions. M., the Academy of the USSR Ministry of Home Affairs, 1979.

[047] See: International Law Manual. M., International Relations, 1966, p. 332.

[048] See: I. Karpets. Crimes of International Nature. M., Juridical Literature, 1979, pp. 31-53.

[049] See: I. Karpets. Crimes of International Nature. M., Juridical Literature, 1979, p. 48.

[050] See: I. Karpets. Crimes of International Nature. M., Juridical Literature, 1979, p.49.

[051] See: I. Karpets. Crimes of International Nature. M., Juridical Literature, 1979, p.63.

[052] International Law Manual. M., International relations, 1996, pp. 83, 84, 86.

[053] See: I. Karpets. Crimes of International Nature. M., Juridical Literature, 1979, p. 85.

[054] See: I. Karpets. Crimes of International Nature. M., Juridical Literature, 1979, 50.

[055] On the Shanghai commission see: L. Anisimov Narcotics: Legal Regulation. L., Leningrad University, 1974, pp. 9-10.

[056] For more details about provisions of the 1912 Hague Convention see the above mentioned work by L. Anisimov p.10 and others.

[057] A mention should be made at this point of the fact that even official sources diverged while quoting the name of this document. For example, one of the used names is: "Agreement on the Production of Refined Opium, Trade in It and Its Use" (Collection of Existing Treaties, Agreements and Conventions Signed Between the USSR and Foreign Countries. M., Politizdat, 1956, issue XIII, p. 483). The other name is: "Agreement Dealing With the Production of Opium for Smoking, Domestic Trade in It and Its Use" (Collection of Existing Treaties, Agreements and Conventions Signed Between the USSR and Foreign Countries. M., International Relations,1970, issue XXIII, p.127).

[058] L. Anisimov. See: the above-cited work pp. 13-14.

[059] See: Versailles. Results of the Imperialist War. A Series of Peace Agreements-M.,1925,p.114

[060] See: UN doc. E/CONF, 14.04.1953, March 12th, p. 6.

[061] See: L. Anisimov. the above - cited work p. 13.

[062] See: The League of Nations Documents. M., 36, 1932, XI, Geneva, 1932, January 27th, p. 70.

[063] See: S3 USSR ,1937 No 17 Art. 106. In other home sources it is known as "The Convention of Narcotic Substances" (see, for example, Collection of Presently Working Treaties, Agreements and Conventions Signed with Foreign Countries. M., The People's Commissariat of Foreign Affairs, 1938, issue IX, p. 450).

[064] See: Collection of Presently Working Treaties, Agreements and Conventions Signed with Foreign Countries. M., The People's Commissariat of Foreign Affairs, 1938, Issue IX, p. 472.

[065] See: Collection of Presently Working Treaties, Agreements and Conventions signed with Foreign Countries. M., The People's Commissariat of Foreign Affairs, 1938, Issue IX, pp. 450-496, Issue XIII, No 551, pp. 480-487.

[066] See: International Law Course. A textbook. M., International Relations, 1966 p. 321.

[067] See: Collection of Presently Working Treaties, Agreements and Conventions Signed between the USSR and Foreign Countries. M., Gospolitizdat, 1956, issue XIII, pp. 480-487.

[068] See: Collection of Presently Working Treaties. 1970, Issue XXIII, pp. 105-136.

[069] named subsequently as the 1961 Uniform Convention (Convention).

[070] named subsequently as the 1988 UN Convention.

[071] The 1961 Uniform Convention on Drugs. New York, the United Nations Organization, 1977.

[072] named subsequently as the Commission.

[073] named subsequently as the Committee.

[074] L. Gaukhman. Crime Object. A lecture. M., The Academy of the Russian Federation's Ministry of Home Affairs, 1992, p. 19.

[075] See: Popular Medical Encyclopaedia. M., Soviet Encyclopaedia, 1987, p. 220 and also WHO. Major Documents, Issue 19, Geneva, 1968, p. 5. V. Alekseev, V. Andreev, V. Trotsky and others. The United Nations Organization in Facts and Figures: A Concise Reference Book. M., 1965, pp. 99-100.

[076] Yu. Lisitsin. Social Hygiene and Health Protection System. M., 1973, p. 61.

[077] See: Popular Medical Encyclopaedia. M., Soviet Encyclopaedia, 1987, p. 220.

[078] See: Popular Medical Encyclopaedia. M., Soviet Encyclopaedia, 1987, p. 221.

[079] See: Bulletins of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijan SSR. 1971, No 13 (362), p. 113.

[080] See: Bulletins of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijan SSR, 1971, No 13 (362), p. 113.

[081] Narcotics are substances included in the List of Narcotics (narcotic substances and narcotic-bearing medicines, including synthetic and natural) (See: Bulletin No 11 of the USSR Supreme Court, 1991, pp. 34-43.

[082] L. Gaukhman. Crime Object. A lecture. M., the Academy of the Russian Federation's Ministry of Home Affairs, 1992, p.16.

[083] Yu. Lyapunov. Legal Protection of Nature by Law Enforcement Bodies. M., The Academy of the USSR Ministry of Home Affairs, 1974, p. 49.

[084] See, for example, Soviet Criminal Law Course. L., Leningrad State University, 1981, V. 5, p. 200.

[085] Popular Medical Encyclopaedia. M., Soviet Encyclopaedia, 1987, p. 388.

[086] Soviet Encyclopaedic Dictionary. M., Soviet Encyclopaedia, 1983, p. 858.

[087] L. Gaukhman. Crime Object. A lecture. M., the Academy of the Russian Federation's Ministry of Home Affairs, 1992, p. 23.

[088] See: Bulletin No 11 of the USSR Supreme Court, 1991, pp. 34-43.

[089] Soviet Encyclopaedia Dictionary. M., Soviet Encyclopaedia, 1987, p. 41.

[090] The mention of this is made in juridical literature on measures to combat alcohol. See: O. Shishov. Alcoholism - A Way Leading to Criminal Offenses., M., Moskovsky Rabochii Publishers, 1979, p. 6.

[091] See: Actions Against Drug Addiction. Kiev., The Criminal Investigation Department of the Ukrainian Ministry of Home Affairs, The Main Criminal Investigation Board of the USSR Ministry of Home Affairs, 1988, pp. 68-69.

[092] See: Bulletin No 11 of the USSR Supreme Court, 1991, pp. 34-43.

[093] See: Bulletin No 11 of the USSR Supreme Court, 1991, pp. 41-43.

[094] Collection of Decisions Passed by the Full-scale Meetings of the USSR Supreme Court (1924-1977). M., Izvestia, 1978, p. 2 p. 278.

[095] See: Bulletin of the USSR Supreme Court, 1991, No 11, pp. 34-43.

[096] See: L. Gaukhman, S. Maximov. Criminal Responsibility for Crimes in the Economic Sphere. M., JurInfoR, 1996, p.64.

[097] See: L. Gaukhman, S. Maximov. Criminal Responsibility for Crimes in the Economic Sphere. M., JurInfoR, 1996, pp. 74-75.

[098] See: L. Gaukhman, S. Maximov. Criminal Responsibility for Crimes in the Economic Sphere. M., JurInfoR, 1996, p. 75.

[099] See: L. Gaukhman, S. Maximov. Criminal Responsibility for Crimes in the Economic Sphere. M., JurInfoR, 1996, p. 76.

[100] See: L. Gaukhman, S. Maximov. Criminal Responsibility for Crimes in the Economic Sphere. M., JurInfoR, 1996.

[101] Bulletin No 1 of the USSR Supreme Court, p. 16.

[102] V. Yeraksin. Responsibility for Robbery. M., Juridical Literature, 1972, pp. 41-42.

[103] Bulletin No 6 of the USSR Supreme Court, 1986, p. 4.

[104] L. Gaukhman. Violence as a Method of Committing Crime. M., Juridical Literature, 1974, p. 108.

[105] G. Kriger. Responsibility for Robbery. M., Juridical Literature, 1968, p. 15.

[106] Bulletin No 6 of the USSR Supreme Court, 1986, p. 4.

[107] L. Gaukhman. Violence as a Means of Commiting Crime. M., Juridical Literature, 1974, p. 3.

[108] See e.g. L.Gaukhman. Violence as a Method of Committing Crime. M., Juridical Literature, 1974, p. 92.

[109] See: N. Ozhiganov, M. Kadyrov Criminal Legal Methods to Combat Drug-related Crimes. A Text-book. Tashkent, The Tashkent Higher School of the USSR Ministry of Home Affairs, 1989, pp. 47-48.

[110] See: Bulletin No 1 of the USSR Supreme Court , 1988, p. 17.

[111] See: V. Tkachenko. Crimes Against People's Health. M., All-Union Correspondence School of Law, 1983, p. 51.

[112] N. Ozhiganov and M. Kadyrov. Criminal Legal Methods to Combat Drug-related Crimes. A Textbook. Tashkent, The Tashkent Higher School of the USSR Ministry of Home Afairs, 1989, pp. 47-48.

[113] N. Miroshnichenko, A. Muzyka. Criminal Legal Methods to Combat Drug Addiction. Kiev-Odessa, Vyssha Shkola Publishers, 1988, p. 104.

[114] See, for example, Instruction No 1311 of December 30th 1982 issued by the USSR Ministry of Public Health.

[115] See: N. Miroshnichenko and A. Muzyka. Criminal Legal Methods To Combat Drug Addiction. Kiev-Odessa: Vyssha Shkola Publishers, 1988, pp. 129-130.

[116] See: Criminal Law of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. General Part.-Kiev, Vyssha Shkola Publishers, 1984, p. 97.

[117] See, for example, Soviet Criminal Law Course. M., Nauka Publishers', 1971, volume VI, pp. 369-371. Criminal Law of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. Special Part. The Kiev Higher School, 1989, p. 409,445.

[118] L. Gaukhman Subjective Side of Crime (comparative legal aspect). A Lecture. M., The Academy of the Russian Federation's Ministry of Home Affairs, 1992, p. 5.

[119] See: Soviet Criminal Law Course. L., Leningrad State University, 1981, Volume 5, pp. 207-208.

[120] See: Bulletin No 11 of the USSR Supreme Court , 1991, pp. 34-43.

[121] See: Actions against Drug Addiction.,Kiev The Criminal Investigation Department of the Ukrainian Ministry of Home Affairs, The Chief Criminal Investigation Department of the USSR Ministry of Home Affairs, 1988, pp 68-69.

[122] See: Eldar Gasanov Linked up with Drug Addiction. Lessons of a Criminal Case, Militsia, 1992 No 10 pp.30-32

[123] See: Bulletin No 1 of the USSR Supreme Court, 1988, p.17

[124] See, for example, V. Omigov. Criminological and Legal Problems of the Effort to Combat Drug Addiction and Narcotism. M., The Academy of the Russian Federation's Ministry of Home Affairs, 1992, pp. 80-91.

[125] See: Soviet Criminal Law Manual. M., the Nauka Publishers, 1970. Volume III, pp. 44-45.

[126] See: Bulletins of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijan SSR, 1971 No 13, p. 113; 1985, No 21, p. 204; 1987, No 6, p. 48.

[127] See: A. Blankov and others. Steps To Prevent Drug Addiction Among Adolescents. A Text-book. M., the All-Union Research Center of the USSR Ministry of Home Affairs, 1989, pp. 24-25.

[128] See: V. Ustinov. The System of Preventive Influence on Crime and Legal Prevention of Crime. M, The Academy of the USSR Ministry of Home Affairs, 1983, pp.78-87.

[129] See also: A. Miroshnichenko, A. Muzyka. Criminal Legal Measures to Combat Drug Addiction. Kiev-Odessa Vyssha Shkola Publishers, 1988, p. 27.

[130] See e.g.: materials of the 39th sesson of the Commission on Drugs. Vienna, April 16th through to 25th 1996; Compendium of projects carried out during two two year-periods in 1994-1995 and 1995-1996 (September 1st 1995 estimate)submitted to the UN Commission on Drugs.; A press-release: the seminar-cum-conference on problems of cooperation in the area of control over drugs (Tashkent, May 3d and 4th 1996. M., Embassy of the Republic of Uzbekistan in the Russian Federation, 1996.).

[131] For example, Bolivia gets annually 37 million dollars from the United Nations for the purpose of restructuring its agriculture so that it could produce useful crops instead of coca. Besides, the United States grants that country 75 million dollars every year, with 14 million out of them spent specially on anti-cocain measures (see: Growing Scale of Cocain Narcobusiness, the All-Union Institute of Scientific and Technical Information (VINITI), 1989, No 6, pp. 12-13).

[132] 134 See: the UNESCO Courier, 1973, May. p. 8.

[133] See: V. Omigov. Criminological and Legal Problems of Actions Against Drug Addiction and Narcotism. M., The Academy of the Russian Federation's Ministry of Home Affairs, 1992, pp. 121-122.

[134] See: V. Omigov. Criminological and Legal Problems of Actions Against Drug Addiction and Narcotism. M., The Academy of the Russian Federation's Ministry of Home Affairs, 1992, pp. 121-122.

[135] See: V. Omigov. Criminological and Legal Problems of Actions Against Drug Addiction and Narcotism. M., The Academy of the Russian Federation's Ministry of Home Affairs, 1992, pp. 121-122.

[136] Tikhomirov Yu. A. Administration of Social Affairs: The Subjects and Objects of Administration in Socialist Society. Moscow, 1984, p. 33; The Theory of Law Enforcement Administration. A textbook. The Academy of the USSR Ministry of Home Affairs, Moscow, 1990, p. 45.

[137] Gabiani, A.A. On the Brink of an Abyss: Drug Addiction and Drug Addicts. Mysl Publishers, Moscow, 1990, pp. 131-132.

[138] Blabber, IV, Sadovski, V.N., Yudin, E.G., A Systemic Approach to Modern-Day Science, in the Methodological Problems of Systemic Research. Moscow, 1970, p. 44.

[139] Steps of the US Administration to Build Up the Campaign Against Organized Crime and Illegal Circulation of Drugs. The All-Union Research Institute of Scientific and Technological Information. 1983, No. 4, pp. 7,8.

[140] Drug Abuse in the USA and Methods of Counteraction. The All-Union Research Institute of Scientific and Technological Information. 1988, No. 10, pp. 5-7.

[141] Canada's National Strategy Against Drugs, Express-Information of the Main Research Center of the Russian Federation's Ministry of Home Affairs, No. 10, 1992.

[142] Organized Measures Against Drug Addiction in the United Kingdom. Flash Bulletin of the Main Research Center of the USSR Ministry of Home Affairs, 1989, ed. 13, p. 2.

[143] Organized Measures Against Drug Addiction in the United Kingdom. Flash Bulletin of the Main Research Center of the USSR Ministry of Home Affairs, 1989, ed. 13, pp. 2-7.

[144] Narcobusiness in Mexico. The All-Union Research Institute of Scientific and Technological Information, 1989, No. 8, pp. 14-15.

[145] The Spread of Drugs in Spain. The All-Union Research Institute of Scientific and Technological Information, 1988, No. 2, pp. 12-14.

[146] See: The Minister of the Interior and Public Safety of France Presents the National Program Against Narcobusiness. Signal newsletter of the Main Research Center of the Russian Ministry of Home Affairs.. No.86, pp. 1-2.

[147] Before the dissolution of the USSR, special Rules of the USSR Public Health Ministry and Ministry of Home Affairs furnished guidelines for the identification and registration of the individuals perpetrating a non-medical use of stupefying substances and for administering compulsory treatment to drug addicts. Despite imperfections, it laid the legislative groundwork for a complex of measures to build up the campaign against drug abuse.

[148] Bogomolova, T.A., Tolpenin, K.A. Narcotism and Drug Abuse: Guidelines for Preventive Treatment and Prophylactics. The Soviet State and Law, 1987, No.1, p. 85.

[149] Bred, David. Seeking the Elixir of Longevity. Original publication in Time Magazine. Reference to Za Rubezhom Weekly, 1989, No. 4 (1489), p. 19.

[150] Basic organizational measures in administering compulsory treatment to drug addicts are specified in the Instruction, enacted by the joint decree No. 402/109 of the USSR Ministry of Public Health and the USSR Ministry of Home Affairs passed on May 20th, 1988. In some CIS countries the Instruction is still in force.

[151] Ways of Mounting Efforts Against Illegally Manufactured Drugs. The All-Union Research Institute of Scientific and Technological Information, 1983, No.3, p. 17-19.

[152] See the agreement on relationships between home affairs ministries in the sphere of information exchange Bulletin No 6 of the Russian Federation's Ministry of Home Affairs, 1992, p. 5-6.

[153] S. Gursi. Beware - Drug Addiction! M., Meditsina Publishers, 1988, p. 96.

[154] Brunon Kholyst. Criminology. Basic Problems (translation from Polish) M., Yuridicheskaya Literatura, 1980, p. 32-33.

[155] See: Drug Addiction in Poland. Reference survey. M., The Academy of the USSR Ministry of Home Affairs, 1991, p. 12.


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